Recycling of paper and rice hull ash into a low-cost construction material using cement as binder

Impact Survey on the CPU Integrated Outreach Activity for Barangay Ilongbukid, San Rafael, Iloilo

  • by Aries Roda D. Romallosa, Hope G. Patricio and Margen A. Java (completed June 2016)


This study evaluated the impact of Central Philippine University (CPU) outreach interventions and activities for Brgy. Ilongbukid and adjacent communities in San Rafael, Iloilo based on recently obtained cross-sectional data vis-a-vis the 2006 and 2012 baseline results. The “post-test” or the “one shot” survey design and focus group discussion with toy stakeholders were done to measure the qualitative and quantitative changes brought about by outreach implementation. Results showed that the awareness level on the CPU outreach activities was high but availment of the services among the respondents was low (18.0) since only households with children enrolled at Ilongbukid National High School were reportedly prioritized. Those who benefited front the outreach activities claimed definite satisfaction or satisfaction. Most of the respondents (90.6%) considered the outreach activities to be important. The great majority of the respondents (94.0%) believed that the CPU outreach activities had positive impact in their barangays. Specifically, the residual earnings from the swine chain dispersal project helped finance the children’s education, contributed to house improvement, provided basic needs, and increased household income. It is, therefore, recommended that the outreach activities should be extended to other barangay residents for inclusive growth.

Tracer Study for the CARES Graduates from 2006-2011

  • by Reynaldo N. Dusaran (completed October 2015)


This tracer study was conducted to gather relevant information as to the employment of CPU College of Agriculture, Resources and Environmental Sciences (CARES) graduates from 2006 to 2011 and compare the present findings with the previous findings. Data mere collected through a self-administered questionnaire among 51 out of the 82 (62.2%) graduates of the CPU CARES from 2006 to 2011. Results revealed that except for the single civil status of the respondents in the present study (2006-2011) and married in the first survey (1995-2005). the respondents in both surveys were males, not more than 30 years of age, from Region VI, specifically from Iloilo and residents of municipalities. A greater proportion of respondents in the present than the first survey had acquired professional skills but a greater proportion of the respondents in the first survey had passed any professional examination than those in the present survey. A greater proportion of the respondents in the present survey than in the first survey had attended any training and had advance studies and were employed, however, a much greater proportion of the respondents in the first than in the present survey were regular or permanent. A greater proportion of the respondents in the present survey are working abroad and claimed their present employment as their first job. In both surveys, the respondents claimed that their first job is related to their course. Most of the respondents in the first survey stayed in their first job for one to six months only while most of those in the present survey stayed in their first job from one year to less than two years. In both surveys. the respondents were able to find their first job recommended by someone within six months with a greater proportion of respondents in the present than in the first survey finding their first job as recommended by someone and within six months. The level of the first and present job of the respondents in both surveys is more or less the similar as professional, technical or supervisory. The initial gross monthly earnings of the respondents in the present survey are higher than those in the first survey. In both surveys, the respondents claimed that their curriculum was relevant to their first job and the major competencies they learned in college that they find very useful in their first job included technical skills and human relations skills plus communications skills in the first survey and critical thinking skills in the present survey. Generally, they did not make any suggestions to improve their course curriculum and their program. The respondents in both surveys took their course at CARES because of the quality of its graduates as seen from its alumni, known standard of instruction and performance of its graduates in the field. Among the five major program components, in both surveys, farm practice had the highest mean significance rating while extension had the lowest rating. Overall mean significance rating was slightly higher in the first survey than in the present survey. Among the nine different services/areas of the university/college, in the first survey, highest mean satisfaction rating was on library while the lowest satisfaction rating was on laboratory. In the present survey, highest mean satisfaction rating was on faculty while the lowest rating was on physical plant. The overall mean satisfaction rating has improved.

Biomass Yield of Moringa Oleifera as Influenced by Plant Density and Harvest Population

  • by Manuel C. Palada, Hope G. Patricio and Diaden E. Garcia (completed June 2015)


This study was conducted to determine the of biomass yield of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera) as influenced by plant spacing and frequency of harvesting. Moringa plants were grown at four plant spacing and densities: a) 1m x 1m (10,000 plants per hectare-pph); b) 1 m x 0.5 m (20,000 pph); c) 0.9 m x 0.37 m (30,000 pph) and d) 0.5 m x 0.5 m (40,000 pph), and harvested at three frequencies: 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The field trial was established in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. Moringa seeds cultivar PKM-1 were directly sown in various plots on December 12, 2013. Optimum soil moisture for germination and seedling growth was maintained and complete fertilizer was applied at one tablespoon per plant three weeks after emergence. Seed germination and plant height were recorded on periodic basis. Initial harvest for all treatments was perform 116 days after sowing. Thereafter, harvesting frequencies were followed according to treatments. Results showed that the effect of plant density, harvest frequency, and interaction between plant density and harvest frequency were significant. Overall, fresh leaf biomass increased as plant population increased from 10,000 to 40,000 pph. There was a positive correlation between plant density and biomass yield. Similarly, the longer the harvest frequency the higher was leaf biomass. Based on this study and growing conditions, the optimum plant density for fresh leaf production can be from 20,000 to 30,000 pph. Although leaf production was low at 4-week harvest interval, this frequency may be desirable when there is a need for monthly supply of Moringa raw material for processing into leaf powder and other by-products.

Design and performance evaluation of a jack-driven briquetting machine for briquette production

  • by Aries Roda D. Romallosa (completed October 2014)


This study was conducted to design and evaluate an improvement version of a briquetting machine that utilizes a hydraulic-type bottle-jack for better compression in producing briquettes. The machine can compact 16 cylindrical (with a hole at the center) briquettes resting or about 200-240 pcs/hr. The jack creates the needed pressure by thrusting the molders up to fully compact the materials. With the aid of one spring each both sides, which jointly holds together the molder and jack flooring supports, the piston of the jack when loosened is pulled back to its normal position allowing a semi-automatic type of operation. The briquettes produced by the machine functioned well as fuel when subjected to cooking and boiling tests indicating its potential as alternative source energy. This was also highlighted by a higher percentage (81%) of willingness by waste reclaimer-respondents to buy them as fuel for various cooking and heat applications. The production cost per hour for briquettes ranged from about Php23 to Php 26. Leveling-up of operation may even increase production giving an annual potential earnings of about Php46,000.00 to Php85,000.00. The quality of the three briquettes produced slightly varied and some of the parameters analyzed like bulk density, heating value, moisture, N and S closely met or have met the requirements of DIN 51731.

Genotype-by-Environment Interactions of Traditional Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) Groups in Western Visayas, Philippines

  • by Jaime C. Cabarles, Jr. (completed March 2012)


There are three major groups of traditional chicken in Western Visayas, Philippines namely: Bisaya I, Bisaya II, and Jolo chickens. This study was conducted to determine the interactions of these groups with environmental parameters in the expression of production performance. This study employed purposive sampling covering the provinces of Aklan, Antique, Guimaras, Iloilo, and Negros Occidental A total of 270 raisers were surveyed and 810 chickens were characterized. Collected data were analyzed using correlation and general linear model. Results showed highly significant (P<0.01) correlation between mean daily temperature with relative humidity (r=-0.310), rainfall (r=-0.634), and wind speed (-0.341), and relative humidity with rainfall (r=0.275) and wind speed (-0.301). Jolo chickens had heavier (P<0.01) adult weight (1.65 kg) than Bisaya I (1.238 kg) and Bisaya II (1.504 kg). These chickens can be raised in any slope and production systems without significant effects in their performance in terms of hatching percentage and survival rate. On the other hand, only the Bisaya I adult liveweight becomes lighter when grown in warmer areas.

Keywords: Traditional chickens, genotype by environment interactions, climatic parameter, production performance, and production systems.

Adaptability and Horticultural Characterization of Different Moringa Accessions under Local Conditions (Study II – Adaptability Trial, Greenhouse Study)

  • by Hope G. Patricio (completed August 2015)


Twenty Moringa accessions were tested for adaptability under Central Philippines conditions. These consisted of Me-2, Mo-3, Mo-4, Me-5, Mo-7, Me-8, Mo-9, Mo-12, Mo-15, Ma-20, Mo-39, Mo-33, Mo-34, Mn-35. Mo-37, Mo-38, Mo-40, N (local variety), and Ms (Moringa stenopetala). Ms seeds came from West Africa while N was locally sourced and served as control. Seeds of 18 other accessions were obtained from AVRDC-TWVC. Results showed that Mo-33 and Mo-38 had statistically the lowest germination percentage compared to other 18 accessions All accessions did not significantly differ among each other in terms of survival percentage which was 100% for all except Mo-4 which had only 90%. Mo-34 and Mo-40 were consistently and significantly the tallest from two to eighteen WAE. Me-12 on the other hand, was consistently the shortest based on similar observation periods The number of leaves of the 20 accessions were statistically similar for the whole duration of the study except on the sixth and the eighth WAE during which the most number of leaves were developed. Some red mites and leaf miners were observed from the seedlings but the degree of infestation was negligible. No disease infection was noted on the seedlings. It can be concluded that the 20 Moringa accessions are adaptable to Central Philippines conditions. This is substantiated by their high survival percentages, good resistance to pests and diseases, and relatively high germination percentages.

Adaptability and Horticultural Characterization of Different Moringa Accessions under Local Conditions (Study I – Observational Nursery)

  • by Hope G. Patricio (completed August 2013)


Eighteen Moringa accessions obtained from AVRDC’ – The World Vegetable Center were evaluated for their adaptability and horticultural characteristics in an observational trial at Central Philippine University, Iloilo City, Philippines in June 2000 to May 2012. The accessions originated from India (3), Laos(1). Philippines (1), Taiwan (1), Taiwan (1), Tanzania (1), Thailand (10) and USA (1). Eight accessions had 100% germination, another eight had 80% while two accessions from Thailand had only 40% germination. All seeds that germinated developed into healthy seedlings with 75 to 100% survival. At 28 weeks after second pruning, accessions Mo-2 (USA) and Mo-40 (India) were the tallest whereas Mo-34 (India) was the shortest. Mean stem diameter ranged from 3.5 cm (Mo-34) to 8.5 cm (Mo-4, Thailand). Mo-38 (Thailand) had the most branches per plant, whereas Mo-33 (Philippines) had the least. Two accessions from Thailand (Mo-4 and Mo-14) had the highest leaf fresh weight. However, Mo-6 (Thailand) produced the highest percent dry matter. Of the 18 accessions, only 11 developed flowers which started to appear 49 to 93 days after transplanting (DAT). Of these 11 accessions, only 9 produced pods which developed 75 to 182 DAT Mo-3 (Taiwan) developed the most pods but Mo-34 produced the most seeds one year after planting. Three years after planting, all the accessions except Mo-4 and Mo-6 developed flowers, pods and seeds with Mo-38 producing the most seeds per pod and Mo-15 having the most seeds per tree. Red mites (Tetranychus urticae), defoliations, leaf-footed bug(Leptoglossus phyllopus) and whiteflies (Bemisia sp.) were present in the field but caused only minor damage to the plants. Stern rot was the only pathogenic disease observed. These results indicate that Mo-4 and Mo-14 are ideal for fresh leaves whereas, Mo-2 and Mo-6 are ideal for dry matter production. Furthermore, Mo-15, Mo-7, Mo-9 and Mo-34 are the desirable accessions for seed production.

Briquetting of Biomass and Urban Wastes using a Household Briquette Molder

  • by Aries Roda D. Romallosa (completed August 2011)


This study was conducted to produce briquettes as alternative source of energy from abundant biomass and urban wastes using a locally fabricated household briquette molder which is composed of molders, handle and frame. The mixtures used were the following Briquette 1: paper (100%); Briquette 2: CRH (71%) + cornstarch (29%); Briquette 3: Sawdust (71%), cornstarch (29%); Briquette 4: paper (50%) 4 CR11 (50%), Briquette 5 paper (50%) + sawdust (50%), and Briquette 6 paper (50V.) + CRH (25%)+ sawdust (25%). Smaller sizes of balled homogeneous materials were placed on each of the molder of the machine. The materials were compacted by closing and pressing down the movable upper half portion of the molder then the briquettes produced were placed on trays for sun-drying until ideal for fuel use. Briquettes 1 (Paper), 5 (Paper + Sawdust), and 6 (Paper + CRH + Sawdust) were found to be the most viable mixtures and are therefore recommended for the production of briquettes. This is based on practicality of production requirements and high production rate, better quality of fuel produced, fast operating, performance in terms of boiling water and cooking rice and potential earnings that may be gained when adopted as an income generating project.

Growth Performance of Lacatan Banana (Musa sapientum L.) Fertilized with Different Brands of Commercial Organic Fertilizer at Ilong Bukid, San Rafael, Iloilo Conditions: A Community Based Participatory Research

  • by Ricardo C. Sumpay, Jr.(completed October 2010)


The study was conducted from February 26 to June 29, 2007 at Ilongbukid, San Rafael, Iloilo. It determined the efficiency of the different brands of organic fertilizer on the growth of lacatan banana and obtained baseline information for a follow-up study on farmer-researcher partnership on techno-transfer. The experimental treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The experimental treatments consisted of three organic fertilizers namely: Bodega, Farmer’s Choice and D & T. Bananas applied with granular fertilizer and plants without fertilizers were used as basis for comparison. The rate of fertilizers was based on the recommended rate of 90- 30-120 kg of N, P205, and K20/ha. Results of the study revealed that bananas fertilized with Farmer’s Choice (C) were higher and had more functional leaves. Furthermore, inorganic fertilized bananas were bigger in trunk size but were not significantly (P>0.05) bigger than those fertilized with Bodega, D & T, and the unfertilized plants.