Construction and Testing of an Improvised Leaf Electroscope

  • by Rex S. Rubidy (completed July 2015)


This study aimed to construct and test the improvised leaf electroscope (ILE) Physics Laboratory experiments. It was only limited on the construction and testing of ILE. The finished products replaced the existing electroscope and provide hands – on learning experiences to the students. The Improvised Leaf Electroscope was made of Erlen Meyer flask as chamber. Its major parts were the following: a) the metal rod which will serve as the stem and the knob, b) cork stopper which will hold the aluminum leaves mounted on the metal rod, and c) aluminum foil which will serve as the leaves. The materials needed are locally available and less expensive. Nine samples of ILE were constructed in order to test which samples can produce the highest approximate angle of deflection. Three various ways of test were made with three trials for each testing. Results reveal that copper rod is the best metal stem to use with an approximate measured angle of deflection of 26°. The appropriate length of the rod is 6 inches with 46° approximate measured angles of deflection. And the suitable width of aluminum leaves is 0.5 cm with 30° approximate measured angle of deflection. In order to improve the operation of the ILE, it is highly recommended to produce a good quality of plastic rod and woolen cloth in order to attain maximum results and not to depend on the imported rod and cloth.

Nutrient Composition and Antioxidant Property of Philippine Indigenous Vegetables

  • by Ilda G. Borlongan (completed August 2013)


This study determined the nutrient profile arid the anti-oxidant property of edible portions of 20 indigenous vegetables commonly consumed in the Philippines. The study conclude the most the vegetables are important sources of carbohydrates, proteins, fiber, minerals and fats. The vegetables contain minerals (Ca, P and Fe) that can supply our daily micronutrient needs and possesses an acceptable amount of anti-oxidants that can fight against many of the diseases as nutriceuticals. On the dry weight basis, the protein contents of the vegetables range between 18.4 to 35.4% with okra having the lowest and jute (saluyot) having the highest. The crude fat contents range from 0.11 to 8.5% with okra having the lowest value and malunggay having the highest. For fiber contents, the values range from 6 to 11.5% with taro (gabi) having the highest value. The digestible carbohydrate (NFE) contents of the vegetables are relatively higher in comparison with other nutrients. They range from 38 to 64%. The highest value is from okra and least is from malunggay and gabi. The ash contents range from 5% to 18 A with kolitis having the highest ash content and cowpea (paayap) and pigeon pea (kadyos) have lowest ash content. The moisture or water contents of the edible portion are high at (68 to92.5% aths’el highest ash content and cowpea (paayap) and pigeon pea (kadyo9s2)1.15aze) contents at 7.5 to 32%. Alugbati has the highest moisture conte content an therefore the lowest dry matter content Cowpea and pigeon pea have the highest dry matter content On a percent fresh weight basis, cowpea, pigeon pea and malunggay have the highest protein contents while okra and alugbati have the least. Results also reveal that malunggay has the highest crude fatamong content e fruit Among the leafy vegetable samples, malunggay has the highest fiber content while a in Kanto. or pod samples, kadyos has the highest fiber. The digestible carbohydrates are highest tops, malunggay and apat-apat among the leafy vegetables while among vegetable pod samples, highest digestible carbohydrates contents are found in kadyos and cowpea. Percent ash or mineral contents are highest in malunggay, kolitis with spine, violet lupo and ampalaya tops. As to the specific minerals, calcium (Ca) contents range from 103 to 2977 mg/ 100g dry weight with malunggay having the highest and kadyos the least Phosphorus (P) contents range from 320 to 610 mg/100g dry weight with apat-apat having the highest content Iron (Fe) contents range from 7.15 to 101 mg/ 100g dry weight with jute (saluyot) having the highest value and okra the lowest The antioxidant properties of the different indigenous vegetables measured as percent free radical scavenging activity and total polyphenolics are relatively high. The antioxidant activities of all raw leafy vegetables and okra (75.7 to 92%) are higher than those of the blanched (64 to 83.4%) and boiled (59 to 80.1%) counterparts. This indicates that blanching and boiling greatly influence the loss of antioxidant components in leafy vegetables. Blanching decreases the activity from 5 to 15% while boiling decreases the acbvity by 10 to 25%. For the vegetable pods, no significant differences in anti-oxidant activities are observed in the raw, blanched and boiled samples indicating that blanching and boiling do not affect the anti-oxidant property of these vegetables. Processing affects content, activity and bioavailability of bioactive compounds and therefore health promoting capacity of vegetables depends on their processing history. This aspect should be strictly considered to obtain the optimum nutriceutical benefits from these vegetables. The findings on the nutriceutical importance of these indigenous vegetables to humans should provide a motivation for exploring their horticultural potential.

Key words: indigenous vegetables, nutrient composition, anti-oxidant property, nutnceUtiCalS, free radical scavenging activity, polyphenolics.

Lighting Up the Last Mile: An Impact Study of the Micro Hydro Projects of CPU-AREC in Three Mountain Settlements of San Remegio, Antique

Change in the Quality of Life among the Beneficiaries of the Micro-Hydro Project of CPU College of Engineering and Department of Energy in Barangay Agbobolo, Ajuy, Iloilo: A Social Impact Assessment

Live Experience of Clan War Survivors of Barangay Busog, Valderama, Antique: A Phenomenological Research

Terrestrial Macrophytes Assessment in Camp Higher Ground, Barotac Viejo, Iloilo, Philippines

Heavy Metals in Sea Salt, Seawater Source and Iodized Salt Locally Found in Iloilo, Philippines

Extent of Deterioration and Formation of Toxic Substances in Cooking Oil (Coconut Oil) when heated repeatedly above smoke point

  • By Ma. Mercy A. Japitana (completed June 2016)


This study was conducted to determine the stability and Me toxic substances formed when cooking oil (Refined, Bleached and Deodorized-Coconut Oil or RBD-CNO) is subjected to heat treatments. Four treatments were used in the study the untreated (UN), (T1) was heated once, (T2) heated twice with intermittent cooling and (T3), heated thrice with intermittent cooling. There were three replicate, for each treatment. The samples were analyzed for fatty acid profit, free fatty acid value, peroxide value and the amount of PAH present. The mean of the results obtained for all treatments were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The fatty acid profile showed that only the lenoleic acid decreased to quantity constantly up to the third heating, significant at 5% ɑ. Free fatty acid and peroxide values showed an increasing trend, which were significant at 5% ɑ. Out of the 22 PAH analyzed, only 1, 6, 7-trimethylnaphthalene showed an increasing trend, significant at 5% ɑ. To compare treatment means from each other, Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used. The amount of Ienoleic acid showed a significant difference between UN and T1, UN and T2, UN and T3 but treatments T1, T2 and T3 were not significantly different from each other at 5%level of probability. For both the free fatty acid and peroxide values, UN, T1, T2 and T3 showed a significant difference compared to each other at 5% level of probability.

Ilonggo Perceptions on the Extent of Patronage Practices and their Attitudes toward Intra- Familial Succession in Iloilo

  • By Ernesto S. Saquibal, Jr. and Ma. Lindy B. Saquibal (completed October 2015)


The study examined politics in Iloilo by looking into Ilonggo voters’ perceptions of patronage practices of local politicians, and hose these conditions influence their attitude towards dynastic politics or intra-familial succession in the local level. A total of 384 respondents were surveyed through face-to-face interview. Chi-square and Gamma tests were used to determine the significant relationships between variables. Findings of the study reveal that the use of patronage has contributed to the election success of the Governor, Congressman, Mayor and Punong Barangay to Some Extent (40.8%) and to a Great Extent (18 3%). One in four (24 5 %) of the respondents were Not Sure or Uncertain of its effect while 11.8 percent noted that its effect is Negligible. With regard to their attitude towards ‘dynastic’ politics or intra-familial succession, one in five (22.1%) among the llonggo voters holds a positive attitude compared to three-fourths (74.5 %) who exhibit a Neutral Altitude towards these politicians. These findings thus suggest that the llonggo voter perceived that the extensive one of patronage has generally contributed to the election success of local politicians in the Province. These findings validate an earlier study on political patronage in Iloilo City by Saquibal (2008) that local politicians arc more inclined to implement patronage projects which are “easily visible” such as infrastructure projects, e.g. Roads, drainage systems, astesian wells and water hand pumps, and have “more immediate, tangible ‘personal’ impact on constituents in the form of social welfare services, i.e., medical assistance and assistance to victims of calamities,, as well as personal assistance, i.e., burial assistance, e.g., free cofins and funeral services. For sure, many of these projects do not respond to the long-term needs and problems of constituents, and have only a ‘fleeting’ impact on their lives. Often, these patronage projects served as functional ‘promotional’ tools from where local officials draw their political strength and support comes election time. Moreover, the Ilonggo voter exhibits a generally ambivalent attitude, but not a negativistic one, with respect to candidates from ‘dynastic’ families Respondents are more inclined to support ‘dynastic’ politicians that exhibit good personal qualities and performance while in public office. There is high consensus to reject candidates who are perceived to be corrupt. However, the practice of patronage cannot account for respondents’ attitude towards dynastic politics. Since the data was gathered primarily through a survey, thus limiting itself to quantitative results and analysis, it is recommended that in-depth interviews with key informants, i.e., local officials and community leaders be employed to come up with more meaningful analysis. Replicating this study in other cities and provinces in the Philippines and examining other variables might yield better understanding of Filipino electoral politics in the local level.

A Needs Assessment survey for a Proposed Speech Development Program for the Faculty of Central Philippine University

  • By Marie Melanie J. Javier-Misajon (completed November 2014)


This study surveyed the oral communication skills of the faculty of Central Philippine University and to determine their perceived skills and need levels. It also determined any significant relationships between certain personal and CPU- related demographics and their need levels and willingness to participate in the speech improvement program. A take-all approach was done of all full time faculty members and 87.2% participated. The instrument was a questionnaire of three parts covering demography, oral communication skills and training preferences. The results showed that the faculty members of Central Philippine University for the second semester of the school year 2013-2014 skills and ear 2013-2014 were largely females, married and middle aged. They had master’s degrees, Assistant Professor ranks, and earned a modest basic salary of Php15, 000.00 to 19,999.00 a month. They perceived themselves to have very good speaking skills but considered themselves to have moderate to high need for specific speaking skills. They were willing to participate in a speech development program for two working days. Among the variables, none was significantly related to speech need level but age, academic rank and basic monthly salary were related to the willingness to participate in the speech program. However, need level was significantly related to willingness to participate. In conclusion, the faculty of CPU is ready and enthusiast for an intervention program to improve their speech skills and the probability of success is high if the results of this research shall be used in designing the program.