Adaptability and Horticultural Characterization of Different Moringa Accessions under Local Conditions (Study II – Adaptability Trial, Greenhouse Study)

  • by Hope G. Patricio (completed August 2015)


Twenty Moringa accessions were tested for adaptability under Central Philippines conditions. These consisted of Me-2, Mo-3, Mo-4, Me-5, Mo-7, Me-8, Mo-9, Mo-12, Mo-15, Ma-20, Mo-39, Mo-33, Mo-34, Mn-35. Mo-37, Mo-38, Mo-40, N (local variety), and Ms (Moringa stenopetala). Ms seeds came from West Africa while N was locally sourced and served as control. Seeds of 18 other accessions were obtained from AVRDC-TWVC. Results showed that Mo-33 and Mo-38 had statistically the lowest germination percentage compared to other 18 accessions All accessions did not significantly differ among each other in terms of survival percentage which was 100% for all except Mo-4 which had only 90%. Mo-34 and Mo-40 were consistently and significantly the tallest from two to eighteen WAE. Me-12 on the other hand, was consistently the shortest based on similar observation periods The number of leaves of the 20 accessions were statistically similar for the whole duration of the study except on the sixth and the eighth WAE during which the most number of leaves were developed. Some red mites and leaf miners were observed from the seedlings but the degree of infestation was negligible. No disease infection was noted on the seedlings. It can be concluded that the 20 Moringa accessions are adaptable to Central Philippines conditions. This is substantiated by their high survival percentages, good resistance to pests and diseases, and relatively high germination percentages.

Adaptability and Horticultural Characterization of Different Moringa Accessions under Local Conditions (Study I – Observational Nursery)

  • by Hope G. Patricio (completed August 2013)


Eighteen Moringa accessions obtained from AVRDC’ – The World Vegetable Center were evaluated for their adaptability and horticultural characteristics in an observational trial at Central Philippine University, Iloilo City, Philippines in June 2000 to May 2012. The accessions originated from India (3), Laos(1). Philippines (1), Taiwan (1), Taiwan (1), Tanzania (1), Thailand (10) and USA (1). Eight accessions had 100% germination, another eight had 80% while two accessions from Thailand had only 40% germination. All seeds that germinated developed into healthy seedlings with 75 to 100% survival. At 28 weeks after second pruning, accessions Mo-2 (USA) and Mo-40 (India) were the tallest whereas Mo-34 (India) was the shortest. Mean stem diameter ranged from 3.5 cm (Mo-34) to 8.5 cm (Mo-4, Thailand). Mo-38 (Thailand) had the most branches per plant, whereas Mo-33 (Philippines) had the least. Two accessions from Thailand (Mo-4 and Mo-14) had the highest leaf fresh weight. However, Mo-6 (Thailand) produced the highest percent dry matter. Of the 18 accessions, only 11 developed flowers which started to appear 49 to 93 days after transplanting (DAT). Of these 11 accessions, only 9 produced pods which developed 75 to 182 DAT Mo-3 (Taiwan) developed the most pods but Mo-34 produced the most seeds one year after planting. Three years after planting, all the accessions except Mo-4 and Mo-6 developed flowers, pods and seeds with Mo-38 producing the most seeds per pod and Mo-15 having the most seeds per tree. Red mites (Tetranychus urticae), defoliations, leaf-footed bug(Leptoglossus phyllopus) and whiteflies (Bemisia sp.) were present in the field but caused only minor damage to the plants. Stern rot was the only pathogenic disease observed. These results indicate that Mo-4 and Mo-14 are ideal for fresh leaves whereas, Mo-2 and Mo-6 are ideal for dry matter production. Furthermore, Mo-15, Mo-7, Mo-9 and Mo-34 are the desirable accessions for seed production.

Briquetting of Biomass and Urban Wastes using a Household Briquette Molder

  • by Aries Roda D. Romallosa (completed August 2011)


This study was conducted to produce briquettes as alternative source of energy from abundant biomass and urban wastes using a locally fabricated household briquette molder which is composed of molders, handle and frame. The mixtures used were the following Briquette 1: paper (100%); Briquette 2: CRH (71%) + cornstarch (29%); Briquette 3: Sawdust (71%), cornstarch (29%); Briquette 4: paper (50%) 4 CR11 (50%), Briquette 5 paper (50%) + sawdust (50%), and Briquette 6 paper (50V.) + CRH (25%)+ sawdust (25%). Smaller sizes of balled homogeneous materials were placed on each of the molder of the machine. The materials were compacted by closing and pressing down the movable upper half portion of the molder then the briquettes produced were placed on trays for sun-drying until ideal for fuel use. Briquettes 1 (Paper), 5 (Paper + Sawdust), and 6 (Paper + CRH + Sawdust) were found to be the most viable mixtures and are therefore recommended for the production of briquettes. This is based on practicality of production requirements and high production rate, better quality of fuel produced, fast operating, performance in terms of boiling water and cooking rice and potential earnings that may be gained when adopted as an income generating project.

Growth Performance of Lacatan Banana (Musa sapientum L.) Fertilized with Different Brands of Commercial Organic Fertilizer at Ilong Bukid, San Rafael, Iloilo Conditions: A Community Based Participatory Research

  • by Ricardo C. Sumpay, Jr.(completed October 2010)


The study was conducted from February 26 to June 29, 2007 at Ilongbukid, San Rafael, Iloilo. It determined the efficiency of the different brands of organic fertilizer on the growth of lacatan banana and obtained baseline information for a follow-up study on farmer-researcher partnership on techno-transfer. The experimental treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The experimental treatments consisted of three organic fertilizers namely: Bodega, Farmer’s Choice and D & T. Bananas applied with granular fertilizer and plants without fertilizers were used as basis for comparison. The rate of fertilizers was based on the recommended rate of 90- 30-120 kg of N, P205, and K20/ha. Results of the study revealed that bananas fertilized with Farmer’s Choice (C) were higher and had more functional leaves. Furthermore, inorganic fertilized bananas were bigger in trunk size but were not significantly (P>0.05) bigger than those fertilized with Bodega, D & T, and the unfertilized plants.

Production Practices of the Native Chicken Growers in Western Visayas

  • by Reynaldo N. Dusaran and Randy A. V. Pabulayan (completed June 2009)


This study was conducted to determine the production practices of the native chicken growers in the top three native chicken municipalities of all provinces in Western Visayas. This is a purely descriptive study that utilized the one-shot survey design. The study focused only in gathering data that can establish the production practices of the native chicken growers in the top three native chicken producing municipalities of all the provinces in Western Visayas. Face to face interview of the native chicken raisers was conducted. Results of the study revealed that the native chicken growers had been into native chicken production for an average of 17.5 years. They have an average of 16.2 heads of hens and 4.4 heads of roosters for breeding or an average of 1 rooster to 4 hens. Their breeders were mostly upgraded native chicken, followed by Darag and Jolo. These breeders were generally own grown. The native chicken growers generally raised their native chicken in free range. The usual feedstuffs given by the native chicken growers to their native chickens were mom or less the same for pullets, cockerels, hens and roosters. Their most common feedstuff was corn/cracked corn, followed by rice bran, home mixes ration, filled/unfilled palay and rice/milled rice. The native chicken growers generally broadcast the feeds on the ground when feeding their chickens. Amount of feeds given to native chickens varied according to the stage of growth of chickens. The mean estimated expenditure for feeds was Php 491.90 per month. Higher incidence mortality among native chickens was observed by the respondents to start in the month of March, peaks in the month June and dwindles towards the month of August. They largely attributed this mortality to change in climate, diseases and pests. Pests commonly observed to the growers included avian pest and rats while the common diseases includes cold/flu, respiratory diseases, pneumonia, and New Castle Disease. The growers were more likely to sell more pullets and cockerels than hens or roosters. Their mean number of pullets sold per month was 5.6 while the average number of cockerels sold per month is 6.4 heads. The respondents had sold an average of 3.4 heads of hens per month. The prices of native chicken generally vary according to their classification. Mean price of hens and roosters were Php 192.60 and Php 218.90 per head, respectively. Chicks were sold from Php 70.00 to Php n80.00 or an average of Php 73.30 per head. The respondents claimed that they have observed lean, normal or peak months in native chicken production. They considered the months of June to August as lean months, the months of September to November as normal months, and months of December to March as peak months. The growers believed that one of the major factors affecting the volume of native chicken sold was the supply and demand of native chicken. Other factors identified by most respondents were financial needs for production of native chicken, climatic factors, price of native chicken, and occurrence of pests and diseases. The growers identified diseases as the main problem followed by change in climate, pests, and lack of capital to afford expensive feeds. The native chicken growers have plans for expansion. The proportion of growers with plan to expand was highest in Aklan and lowest in Iloilo.

Design and Evaluation of Pellet Mill for Animal Feeds Production

  • by Aries Roda D. Romallosa and Jaime C. Cabarles, Jr. (completed June 2009)


      This study was conducted to design and evaluate the performance of an electric motor-driven pellet mill for animal feed production The designed pellet mill is composed of major parts the feed hopper, pelleting chamber, pellet roll, die plate, discharge chute, and frame It is driven by a 1.5 Hp electric motor. It operated using a roll-type extrusion press to force the formulated feeds out of the die plate. As the pellet rolls rotated, force is also applied creating rearrangement of the particles in order to fill the voids or holes of the die plate. The pressure is increased in compression step, causing brittle particles to break and malleable particles to deform forcing them to be fed in the die and come out as pellets. The pellets then fell naturally due to impact created by the rotating die plate. The machine had an over-all dimension of 35 cm (W) by 75 cm (L) and 102 cm (H). It can produce pellets of 4 mm diameter, 10 mm long and weighed 0.138 g. The pellets produced had a bulk density of 0.51 g/cc. The machine had a capacity of 451 kg of pelletized feeds per day of operation. An interested investor needs Php50,000.00 for the procurement of the pellet mill and for the construction of its housing. Considering that the CPU-CARES Formulated Starter Mash will be used to pelletize, financial analysis indicated that it will be profitable to venture in this project. It will give a rate of return of 423% of the capital invested The benefit derived was 16% of the cost incurred The investment to this project including housing can be recovered in less than three months.
      Based on the aforementioned findings, the pellet mill is an ideal machine that can help solve common problems on the dusty mash feeds, an efficient and user friendly machine that produces a significant amount of pellets per day. It is easy to operate and maintain making it affordable and ideal for community feed milling.

Efficacy of Different Green Manures and Commercial Organic Fertilizers on the Growth and Yield of Potted Leaf Lettuce and Cabbage and Their Residudes on Lettuce and Pechay

  • by Ma. Victoria C. Seredrica (completed November 2015)


The studies were conducted at CPU campus, Iloilo City from October 2009 to April 2010. The first one compared the effects of IMO 5 (T4), commercial compost (T5) and leaf manures from acacia (Albizia saman) (T1), ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) (T2), madre de cacao (Gliricidia sepium) (T3), inorganic fertilizer (T6) (positive control), and without fertilizer (T7) (negative control) on the growth and yield of potted cabbage and lettuce. The second study evaluated the growth and yield of pechay and lettuce in pots with residual fertilizer. The experimental treatments were the same as in Study 1. Both experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Results from the first study showed significantly most number of leaves from fertilized lettuce Plants with acacia (T1) showed the significantly highest yield of 0.94 kg/0.75m2. Lettuce with inorganic fertilizer, however, recorded the highest return on investment (ROI) of 47%. In cabbage, the number of leaves and height of fertilized plants were significantly higher than the unfertilized. Plants with acacia (T1) and ipil-ipil (T2) significantly gave the widest head diameter and highest yield but those with inorganic fertilizer recorded the highest ROI. Results from the second study showed that lettuce with residues of green manures and commercial organic fertilizers had more number of leaves, were taller, and out-yielded the unfertilized and those previously applied with inorganic fertilizer. Pechay with different manures had statistically similar leaf count and height but significantly outperformed those with inorganic fertilizer (T6) and the unfertilized (T7). The significantly highest yield was observed from plants previously fertilized with IMO-5 (T4), commercial compost (T5), ipil-ipil (T2), acacia (T1), and madre de cacao (T3). Pechay with compost (T5) showed the highest ROI of 65%.

The effect of different green and animal manures on the growth and yield of potted lettuce, cabbage and cauliflower

  • by Ma. Victoria C. Seredrica and Hope G. Patricio (completed April 2009)


The three crops were planted at different dates at three weeks interval at the back of the College of Agriculture Building. Lettuce was sown first in August 13 and harvested on October 24, 2007, Cabbage from September 4 , 2007 to February 25. 2008; and Cauliflower from September 26, 2007 to January 22, 2008. The objectives of the study were to determine the growth and yield and profitability of growing potted cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce as influenced by different green plant and animal manures. Seven experimental treatments included kamachile leaves, ipil-ipil leaves, madre de cacao leaves, poultry manure, commercial organic fertilizer, commercial synthetic fertilizer and the control (without fertilizer). These treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Results revealed that all agronomic characteristics of the three crops were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the different manures applied. The data show that the growth and yield of lettuce, cabbage and cauliflower fertilized with kamachile manure, ipil-ipil manure, madre de cacao, poultry manure and inorganic fertilizer were significantly better than those of plants which were other unfertilized or fertilized with commercial compost. Cost and return analysis indicate that among the different manures in lettuce, ipil-ipil manure resulted in the highest ROI of 103.71%. That of the unfertilized plants was -70.10. In cabbage. only the addition of poultry manure gave a positive ROI(38.28 %). All the other treatments gave a negative ROI (-14.45% to 100%). On the other hand, none of the treatments used in cauliflower resulted in a positive ROI. The negative ROI indicate that the nutrient supplied by the manure are not enough to support the needs of cabbage and cauliflower for them to give economic yield

Proximate Analysis and Palatability of Different Probable Locally Available alternative Feedstuffs for Native Chicken

  •  by Jaime C. Cabarles, Jr. (completed May 2008)


The study was conducted to establish the baseline on the proximate analysis, palatability and probability of different locally available feedstuffs as alternative feeds for Darag native chicken growers. Proximate analysis revealed that feedstuffs made of leaf meals had higher crude protein, fiber, and ash however; these had lower nitrogen free extract, and moisture. On the other hand, the root meals had lower crude protein, crude fat, fiber, and ash but had higher nitrogen free extract. Banana fruit meal had the highest moisture content. Bread crumbs was the most palatable alternative feedstuff. Chicken fed with leaf meal are likely to produce higher crude protein in dung.

Evaluation of the Different Rice Hull Gasifiers Developed at CPU APPROTECH Center


       Four gasifier stoves, all developed at the Appropriate Technology Center (APPROTECH Center) of CPU, were evaluated in this study. These include: Gasifier A or the cylindrical-type single-burner, top-lit updraft (T-LUD); Gasifier B or the cylindrical-type double-burner, T-LUD (for household use), and, Gasifier C or the conical-type double-burner T-LUD(for household use), and Gasifier D or the conical-type double-burner T-LUD (for industrial use). Evaluation was conducted at the APPMTECH Center on April 23 to May 29, 2007. The stoves consisted of similar pans, namely air moving device, burner, char chamber, char grate, char lever, chimney, control switch, gas pipe, gas regulators, reactor, and pot support. Results of the study revealed that Gasifier A significantly (P<0.01) had the highest percentage production of char and thermal efficiency while Gasifier D significantly (P<0.01) produced the highest fuel consumption rate. In general, however, all the three double-burner stoves (Gasifiers B, C and D) significantly (P<0.01) had the highest fire zone rate and consumption of electric energy compared to Gasifier A since these stoves have the same number of burners and air moving device used. The gas emitted by the gasifier stoves were estimated to contain born 20-24% carbon monoxide, 13-23% hydrogen gas, 8-15% carbon dioxide, 38-42% nitrogen, 0-2% methane and 7-9% water or moisture. Among the gasifiers evaluated, only Glasifier A has the economic advantage over the LPG stove when used. The three other stoves were not practical to use in the household level.