Patubas Volume 10 No.1 2015

Patubas 2015
269 Downloads

Patubas is published once a year under the auspices of Central Philippine University, Jaro, Iloilo City, Philippines.

Copyright © 2015 by individual authors and Patubas.

Published in 2015
Central Philippine University
Lopez Jaena, St., Jaro, Iloilo City

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the authors or publisher.

For print ISSN 1908-515X
Publication ISSN 2672-3611

Opinions and facts contained in the articles published in this issue of Patubas are the sole responsibility of the individual authors and not of the Editorial Board, Patubas or Central Philippine University.

Aries Roda D. Romallosa, Hope G. Patricio and Margen A. Java

ABSTRACT


This study evaluated the impact of Central Philippine University (CPU) outreach interventions and activities for Brgy. Ilongbukid and adjacent communities in San Rafael, Iloilo based on recently obtained cross-sectional data vis-àvis the 2006 and 2012 baseline results. The “post-test” or the “one shot” survey design and focus group discussion with key stakeholders were done to measure the qualitative and quantitative changes brought about by outreach implementation. Results showed that the awareness level on the CPU outreach activities was high but availment of the services among the respondents was low (18.0%) since only households with children enrolled at Ilongbukid National High School were reportedly prioritized. Those who benefited from the outreach activities claimed definite satisfaction or satisfaction. Most of the respondents (90.6%) considered the outreach activities to be important. The great majority of the respondents (94.6%) believed that the CPU outreach activities had positive impact in their barangays. Specifically, the residual earnings from the swine chain dispersal project helped finance the children’s education, contributed to house improvement, provided basic needs, and increased household income.

Emma T. Gico and Evelyn R. Ybarzabal

ABSTRACT


This study was conducted to document the process of making rice wine called ‘pangasi’ by the Panay Bukidnon indigenous people (IP) in Tapaz, Capiz. Specifically, it aimed to describe the ingredients and procedure used and to compare them with other rice wines made in the Philippines. Likewise, it also aimed to describe and discuss the emerging themes deduced from documenting the making of ‘pangasi’ rice wine by the Panay Bukidnon IP. Information were collected through direct observation and semi-structured interview gathered from key cultural informants who were also the participants in the focus group discussion. They are members of the Council of Elders of the Tapaz Indigenous People’s Organization (TIPO). The information gathered were cross-checked with existing literature of documented traditional wine making from different areas in the Philippines.The indigenous rice wine, ‘pangasi’ used by the Central Panay Bukidnon Indigenous People in Tapaz, Capiz is different from the ‘pangasi’ made by the Subanons in Zamboanga del Norte The main ingredient used in making ’pangasi’ of the Central Panay Bukidnon (IP) is ordinary, non-waxy, upland rice while the ‘pangasi’ of the Subanen indigenous people of Zamboanga del Norte, makes use of cassava tubers as the main ingredient and a starter consisting of a concoction from 24 to 60 species of plant herbs, as reported by Nabua (2013). However, it is similar to’ pangasi’ or ‘gasi’ which is a traditional drink among the Subanuns of Mindanao, made also from rice with added crushed ginger root and red hot pepper, but water is added to it. It is almost the
same as ‘pangasi’ made from rice in North Western Mindanao, specifically in Bukidnon, in a study cited by Sanchez (2008) from Sakai and Caldo (1985b). However, they reportedly used sugar solution which is added for the second stage of fermentation instead of sugar cane juice, which is used by the Central Panay Bukidnon IP in Tapaz, Capiz. The use of leaves in the processing of ‘pangasi’ which included, ‘adgaw’, ‘talus’, and young coconut leaves have not been mentioned in earlier related studies. However, regarding their local knowledge on cleanliness and sanitation, it is believed that these leaves are naturally clean, especially if they are ‘ugbus’ or young, and have not been too exposed yet in the environment. Indigenous women have an important role to play in using and preserving this valuable local knowledge. They just have to be better recognized and supported by the community. The value of ‘’pangasi’ is much more than just a traditional drink one can hold in his hand, rather it is one that holds the indigenous community altogether. Aptly described by Fox (1984) as having this social and ritual value, the use of rice wine may be seen as a powerful integrating force which links and binds the individual to the group (Fox, 1984). The local knowledge of the Panay Bukidnon (IP) in making ‘pangasi’ is comparable to the other local knowledge of other indigenous cultures in the Philippines. They just need to have it standardized so that their practice will no longer be always as per ‘estimate’ basis but would be quantifiable or in terms of measured quantities so as to yield a consistent, quality product.

Lucio T. Encio, Nelia G. Bonete, Rowena M. Libo-on, Nonito S. Baldeviso and Teresita E. Crucero

ABSTRACT


This tracer study assessed the employability of graduates of TUEBA and CPU joint degree programs at Thai Nguyen City, Vietnam for the year 2016. There were 113 graduates involved in this study who were chosen randomly from a population of 157 graduates of TUEBA and CPU joint degree programs at Thai Nguyen City, Vietnam. The results of the study showed that the graduates were predominantly male, married, with the age between 41-50 years old, and mostly MBA graduates; majority had regular or permanent employment status; a vast majority of graduates had managerial and supervisory positions and predominantly employed in the private sector; most graduates got their first job promotion after 6 months but not more than 1 year from the date of their graduation; communication skill was ranked as first among the professional skills deemed necessary for employment, and most had income of 5 million- 8 million vnd. Significant relationship existed between educational attainment and graduates’ employability in terms of job position level, employment sector, employment status, and monthly salary/income. Also, there was significant relationship between age and graduates’ employability in terms of job position level, professional skills, and monthly salary/income. There were few graduates who preferred to be under-employed because they had better opportunity to
earn higher monthly income. The respondents provided inputs for improvement of facilities, specifically in the maintenance of cleanliness of classrooms and rest rooms; improvement in the area of faculty and instruction by allowing the faculty-student interaction and student-student brainstorming activities, use the internet or relevant social media networks; improvement of the administrative support services by providing annual student orientation program to update students of school policies that affect them while studying at the University.

Armando M. Hisuan, Jr., Myrna T. Luceño and Mary Ann C. Garrid

ABSTRACT


Due to lack or no specific documented evidence of traditional cooking method and practices of Central Panay in the indigenous community of Tapaz, Capiz, their cuisine is handed down through an oral tradition, recipes and food wisdom from expert tribal leaders to the younger generations through demonstrations and verbal instructions. Indigenous foods, are ethnically peculiar food choices. The methods which these foods are prepared and served are unique. It can survive the challenges of development by empowering the local tastes and documentation. The study in documenting Traditional Cooking and Practices in Central was conducted in Brgy Sinonod, Tapaz Capiz. The said barangay is the last frontier of indigenous community which had not been reach by industrialization and modernization. The study was made possible through the tribal leaders representing the following barangay; Brgy. Mato-bato, Brgy. Sinonod, Bgry. Tacayan, Brgy. Maliao and Brgy. Rizal Norte. This research paper utilized a semi-structured interview compared with existing literature. Information were collected through direct observation and semi-structured interview. With limited immersion time, important information was gathered from the key cultural informants. An actual interview and focus group discussion had been used to collect information. A Digital recorder and camera were utilized to transcribe information for proper documentation and data analysis. The guide questions were formed as the bases of the inquiries, which were centered on the following: identification of ingredient, their distribution, seasonal availability and cultural usage. In documenting the interview, the interviewee has been given the option to decline the interview process. The time spent had been around four days to establish rapport and interaction with indigenous people specially those belonging to the older generations and acquire knowledge in indigenous cooking methods. The respondents had been given a chance to review the finding of the study for consistency and validity in the recently concluded IP Week Celebrations 2017. Thematic Analysis had been used in analyzing the data collected. Information gathered had been categorized according to emerging themes in occasion, rituals, preparation and presentation. The Indigenous cooking will becomes richer and it can provide livelihood and financial opportunity to the community. The Indigenous Cooking Methods of Central Panay revolves on Binakol and Tinum-anan, it depicts a simple way of preparing, cooking and presenting their food that would compliments their daily life activities and cultural identity. Thus, pursuant to Republic Act 8371 chapter VI with regards to the Protection of Indigenous Culture, Traditions and Institutions, this research on Indigenous cooking of Central Panay, Tapaz, Capiz had been conducted.

Carolyn L. Yoro, Susan A. Sumande, Janette Yap, and Rosita Saldajeno

ABSTRACT


College students reported to have experienced high level of stress during their academic year. Studies within and outside the country have examined stress among students but there is no local studies addressing nursing students’ stress in the clinical area. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the stress level and sources of stress in clinical practice as well as to identify the coping behavior utilized by nursing students. A combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches was used. The study involved 153 nursing students and 10 students participated in focus group discussion (FGD). Data were analyzed with the use of descriptive and inferential statistics. FGD was used to supplement and complement the survey findings. Findings revealed that most of the students in this study were 19 years old or younger, female and second year college and had moderate level of stress. The most common stress factors were stress from assignment and workload, and stress from taking care of patients. Students used diverse strategies to cope with stress with problem solving as their most common coping strategy. This study concluded that nursing students suffered from stress. The study found no significant relationship between level of stress and coping behavior. Four themes have emerged from the study: (1) initial clinical anxiety, (2) theory-practice gap, (3) clinical supervision, and (4) professional role. They cope by having support system composed of their families and friends; prayers; avoidance and escape the situations, diversional activities and self-control. A comprehensive program for students should be developed to reduce stress and to utilize healthy coping strategies to enhance health promotion.

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Patubas Volume 9 No.1 2014

patubas img 2014
351 Downloads

Patubas is published once a year under the auspices of Central Philippine University, Jaro, Iloilo City, Philippines.

Copyright © 2014 by individual authors and Patubas.

Published in 2014
Central Philippine University
Lopez Jaena, St., Jaro, Iloilo City

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the authors or publisher.

For print ISSN 1908-515X
Publication ISSN 2672-3611

Opinions and facts contained in the articles published in this issue of Patubas are the sole responsibility of the individual authors and not of the Editorial Board, Patubas or Central Philippine University.

Ma. Victoria C. Seredrica

ABSTRACT


Two studies were conducted at CPU campus, Iloilo
City from October 2009 to April 2010. The first one
compared the effects of IMO-5, commercial compost,
leaf green manures and inorganic fertilizer. Plants
without fertilizer served as basis for comparison. The
second study evaluated the growth and yield of
pechay and lettuce in pots with residual fertilizer.
Pechay was used instead of cabbage because of its
shorter growth period than cabbage. The treatments
consisted of acacia (Albizia saman (Jacq.) Merr.) (T1),
ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) (T2),
and madre de cacao (Gliricidia sepium) (Jacq.) Walp.)
(T3) leaf manures, IMO-5 (T4), and commercial
compost (T5). The inorganic fertilized (T6) and
unfertilized (T7) plants served as positive and
negative controls, respectively. These were laid out in
randomized complete block design with three
replications. Results from the first study showed
significantly most leaves from fertilized lettuce except
those added with madre de cacao. Likewise in
cabbage, the fertilized plants were significantly taller
and produced significantly more leaves than the
unfertilized. Lettuce and cabbage with inorganic
fertilizer, however, recorded the highest return on
investment (ROI) of 89% and 125%, respectively. 2
Results from the second study revealed that lettuce
grown in soil with residues of green manures and
commercial organic fertilizers had more leaves, were
taller, and out yielded the unfertilized plants and
those previously applied with inorganic fertilizer.
Results further showed that pechay with different
manures had statistically similar leaf count and height
but had significantly outperformed those with
inorganic fertilizer (T6) and without fertilizer (T7).
However, lettuce and pechay with residues of compost
(T5) showed the highest ROI of 411% and 318%,
respectively. Based on the results of the first study, it
is concluded that it is profitable to use inorganic
fertilizer (T6) in lettuce and cabbage production.
However, it was the residue from commercial compost
(T5) that sustained soil productivity and profitability of
the second crop.

Ma. Mercy A. Japitana

ABSTRACT


Commercial cooking oil sample (Refined, Bleached and
Deodorized-Coconut Oil or RBD-CNO) was subjected to heat
treatments. Twelve samples of four treatments and three
replicates for each treatment: namely, the untreated (UN),
heated once (T1), heated twice (T2) with intermittent cooling
and, heated thrice (T3) with intermittent cooling were
analyzed for fatty acid profile, free fatty acid value, peroxide
value and the presence of PAH. Data were statistically
analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Significant treatment mean differences were established using
DMRT. The fatty acid profile showed that only linoleic acid
decreased in quantity constantly up to the third heating. Free
fatty acid and peroxide values showed an increasing trend. All
of the 22 PAH included in the analysis were present in all
treatments in small quantities. The only PAH which showed an
increasing trend in the 4 treatments was 1,6,7-
trimethylnaphthalene, the quantities of the rest remained the
same. The decrease in the amount of linoleic acid in the free
fatty acid profile indicated that unsaturated fatty acids
decompose on heating and this could be the source of
peroxides, but saturated fatty acid components were stable at
high temperature.

Aries Roda D. Romallosa

ABSTRACT


This study was conducted to evaluate the technical and
economic performance of the designed briquetting machine
that utilizes a hydraulic-type bottle-jack for better
compression in producing briquettes. The machine can
compact 16 cylindrical (with a hole at the center)
briquettes in one pressing or about 200 to 240 pcs/hr. The
jack creates the needed pressure by thrusting the molders
up to fully compact the materials. With the aid of one
spring on both sides, which jointly holds together the
molder and jack flooring supports, the piston of the jack
when loosened is pulled back to its normal position
allowing a semi-automatic type of operation. The
briquettes produced by the machine functioned well as fuel
when subjected to cooking and boiling tests indicating its
potential as alternative source of energy. This was also
highlighted by a higher percentage (81%) of willingness by
waste reclaimer-respondents to buy them as fuel for
various cooking and heat applications. The production cost
per hour for briquettes ranged from about Php32 to Php34
or Php0.13 to Php0.16 per briquette. Leveling-up of
operation may even increase production giving annual
potential earnings of about Php29,000.00 to Php69,000.00.
The quality of the three briquettes produced slightly varied
and some of the parameters analyzed like bulk density,
heating value, moisture, N and S closely met or have met the
requirements of DIN 51731.

Rex S. Rubidy

ABSTRACT


This study aimed to construct and test the improvised leaf
electroscope (ILE) for Physics Laboratory experiments. It
was only limited on the construction and testing of ILE. The
finished products replaced the existing electroscope and
provide hands – on learning experience to the students.
The Improvised Leaf Electroscope was made of Erlen Meyer
flask as chamber. Its major parts were the following: a)
the metal rod which will serve as the stem and the knob b)
cork stopper which will hold the aluminum leaves mounted
on the metal rod, and c) aluminum foil which will serve as
the leaves. The materials needed are locally available and
less expensive. Nine samples of ILE were constructed in
order to test which samples can produce the highest
approximate angle of deflection. Three various ways of test
were made with three trials for each testing. Results
reveal that copper rod is the best metal stem to use with
an approximate measured angle of deflection of 260
. The
appropriate length of the rod is 6 inches with 460
approximate measured angles of deflection. And the
suitable width of aluminum leaves is 0.5 cm with 300
approximate measured angle of deflection. In order to
improve the operation of the ILE, it is highly recommended
to produce a good quality of plastic rod and woolen cloth in
order to attain maximum results and not to depend on the
imported rod and cloth.

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Patubas Volume 8 No.1 2013

patubas2013
265 Downloads

Patubas is published once a year under the auspices of Central Philippine University, Jaro, Iloilo City, Philippines.

Copyright © 2013 by individual authors and Patubas.

Published in 2013
Central Philippine University
Lopez Jaena, St., Jaro, Iloilo City

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the authors or publisher.

For print ISSN 1908-515X
Publication ISSN 2672-3611

Opinions and facts contained in the articles published in this issue of Patubas are the sole responsibility of the individual authors and not of the Editorial Board, Patubas or Central Philippine University.

Mizpah C. Villalobos

ABSTRACT


Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) is a common herb used in cooking
and recognized for its many health benefits. This study measured the
antioxidant activity and citral content in extracts made from air-dried and fresh
lemongrass tissues prepared by decoction and infusion. The plants were
collected from three different areas in Iloilo (Pavia, Jaro and Lapaz) and two
baranggays in Buenavista, Guimaras (Brgy. Daragan and Brgy. San Isidro). All
plant extracts were found to exhibit antioxidant activity against the
diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Antioxidant activity was significantly (p
<0.05) higher in fresh plants than in dried plants. Fresh plants when prepared
by decoction gave higher antioxidant activity than when prepared by infusion.
On the other hand, antioxidant activity remained the same in dried plants,
whether prepared by decoction or infusion. Citral was also found to be present
in the plant extracts, but is not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the kind of
plant tissues used, whether fresh or dried. However, extraction by decoction
gave a higher citral content than infusion. Thus, if one wanted to get the most
of antioxidants and citral from lemongrass tea, fresh plants prepared by
decoction must be used.

Sharlene G. Gotico and Anna May Yap-Zerrudo

ABSTRACT


This study was conducted to identify the norms of morality as reflected in the
19th century Philippine literature. Content analysis was used in this study using
the three approaches in literary analysis, namely Moral-Philosophical
Approach, Feminism, and Historical-Biographical Approach. In moralphilosophical approach, the following are the norms of morality as depicted in
Lopez-Jaena’s Between Kastila and Filipina: Temperance and Patience. In
Marcelo H. Del Pilar’s To Josefa Gatmaitan, the following attributes can be
seen: Courage, Fortitude, Simplicity and Virtue. Jose Rizal’s Letter to the
Young Women of Malolos exemplified the following: Piety, Fortitude/Courage,
Prudence, and Resoluteness. Using the Feminist Approach, women at that
time were regarded as “second class citizens” in a highly-patriarchal Philippine
society, taking secondary roles in the home and in other aspects of their lives.
Using the historical-biographical approach the Filipinos were repressed in their
intellect and creativity because of the Spanish occupation of the Philippines.
Their struggles and pains in being writers at a time of colonization are evident
in their works.

Jerson B. Narciso

ABSTRACT


This study attempted to critically analyze the role that Christianity and Islam
have played in the search for peace in Mindanao as represented by various
Christian and Islamic religious organizations which have been deeply involved
in the Mindanao peace process since post-colonial era up to the present. The
identified common values and principles of peace and justice inherent to
Christianity and Islam could be harnessed toward the establishment of a
shared theological and political agenda, upon which, cooperation and
collaborative works for peace and development in Mindanao should be
anchored. Analysis of the socio-economic, political, religious, and cultural
context reigning in Mindanao as well as the role that Christianity and Islam has
played in the peace process was made from the perspective of a Christian and
Islamic theology of liberation. The study employed a dialogical model of
interpretation which took into account specific themes and texts that are central
to the teachings of the Bible and the Qu’ran. Likewise, the novel was used in
the understanding of Christian and Islamic concepts of peace and justice as
well as in identifying common theological and political agenda for peace in
Mindanao. The study identified at least five areas of theological and political
convergence between Christianity and Islam. These areas can be harnessed
toward the formulation and establishment of a peace project in Mindanao that
is historically and contextually relevant. The study showed that the roots and
causes of conflict in Mindanao are rather complex than simple. Thus, there is
no single explanation or solution to the problem. Not discounting the significant
contributions that the previous peace initiatives have made in the peace
process, the study suggested three political programs for lasting and genuine
peace in Mindanao, namely: Economic, Cultural, and Political restructuring and
transformation.

Marie Melanie J. Javier

ABSTRACT


This study investigated several demographic features of a Most At-Risk
Population (MARP) of Iloilo City, specifically, Commercial Sex Workers
(CSWS). It also investigated their residency status, vocational training history
and views regarding the opportunity for schooling for an alternative livelihood. It
also aimed to determine the selection criteria for those who would participate in
this schooling. A take-all sample of all registered 131 CSWs who worked as
masseuses/masseurs, Guest Relations Officers(GRO) and dancers in the city
was taken. Data was gathered through a one-shot questionnaire. Frequency
distribution was used to describe data, while Chi-square was used to determine
relationship between nominal variables. Regression analysis was used to
predict the length of time the respondents were willing to commit given two
interlaying variables. The survey showed that the registered CSWs of Iloilo City
were mostly females, single and in their prime years (21-29 years old). They
were sufficiently educated, mostly being high school undergraduates to college
undergraduates. Many of them had one child. They were mostly transients
coming from different parts of the Philippines but most were from Negros
Occidental, Cebu and Manila. Their main work areas were in JM Basa St.
while majority had not undergone vocational training, a close number of them
had undergone training mostly in massage therapy at TESDA. The CSWS
welcomed the opportunity for a different livelihood to better help their families
and gain community respectability. Many were willing to a accept a scholarship
and study Culinary Arts for a short time but most were willing to complete a
four-year college degree. They planned to stop schooling if they would
encounter financial difficulties. Others did not like to study due to loss of
income as bread winners. The critical selection criteria for potential scholarship
grantees are age, civil status, number of children, and educational level. following: identification of ingredient, their distribution, seasonal availability and cultural usage. In documenting the interview, the interviewee has been given the option to decline the interview process. The time spent had been around four days to establish rapport and interaction with indigenous people specially those belonging to the older generations and acquire knowledge in indigenous cooking methods. The respondents had been given a chance to review the finding of the study for consistency and validity in the recently concluded IP Week Celebrations 2017. Thematic Analysis had been used in analyzing the data collected. Information gathered had been categorized according to emerging themes in occasion, rituals, preparation and presentation. The Indigenous cooking will becomes richer and it can provide livelihood and financial opportunity to the community. The Indigenous Cooking Methods of Central Panay revolves on Binakol and Tinum-anan, it depicts a simple way of preparing, cooking and presenting their food that would compliments their daily life activities and cultural identity. Thus, pursuant to Republic Act 8371 chapter VI with regards to the Protection of Indigenous Culture, Traditions and Institutions, this research on Indigenous cooking of Central Panay, Tapaz, Capiz had been conducted.

Herly Fie U. Cervera

ABSTRACT


The study explored the extent of use of online social networks and the level of
interpersonal relationships of both students and faculty. The study made use of
the descriptive survey research design. It was found out and concluded in the
study that the students-respondents are primarily female coming from the
different year levels, in the adolescent and young adult stage, taking Bachelor
of Arts program who utilize their personal computers for online social
networking. It was also concluded that the faculty-respondents are mostly
married, in the middle adulthood age, from the different departments of the
College of Arts and Sciences, and are using their personal computers for
online social networking. The students utilize more the online social networks
than their teachers, though both the students and their teachers share similar
level of interpersonal relationships. The extent of use of online social networks
by the students relates significantly to their age and year level, while for faculty
it was related to their age. The level of interpersonal relationship positively
relates to students’ year level, while it relates significantly to the departments
where the faculty belongs. Lastly, it was concluded that the level of students’
interpersonal relationship is not influenced by the extent of use of online social
networks, while it is contrary to that of the faculty.

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Patubas Volume 7 No. 1 2012

patubas2012
185 Downloads

Patubas is published once a year under the auspices of Central Philippine University, Jaro, Iloilo City, Philippines.

Copyright © 2012 by individual authors and Patubas.

Published in 2012
Central Philippine University
Lopez Jaena, St., Jaro, Iloilo City

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the authors or publisher.

For print ISSN 1908-515X
Publication ISSN 2672-3611

Opinions and facts contained in the articles published in this issue of Patubas are the sole responsibility of the individual authors and not of the Editorial Board, Patubas or Central Philippine University.

Aries Roda D. Romallosa and Kristofer John C. Hornada

ABSTRACT


This study was conducted to produce briquettes as alternative source of energy from abundant biomass and urban wastes using a locally fabricated household briquette molder which is composed of molders, handle and frame. The mixtures used were the following Briquette 1: paper (100%); : Briquette 2: carbonized rice husk or CRH (71%) + cornstarch (29%); Briquette 3: Sawdust (71%) + cornstarch (29%); Briquette 4: paper (50%) + CRH (50%); Briquette 5: paper (50%) + sawdust (50%); and Briquette 6: paper (50%) + CRH (25%) + sawdust (25%). Smaller sizes of balled homogeneous materials were placed into each of the molder of the machine. The materials were compacted by closing and pressing down the movable upper half portion of the molder then the briquettes produced were placed on trays for sundrying until ideal for fuel use. Briquettes 1 (Paper), 5 (Paper + Sawdust), and 6 (Paper + CRH + Sawdust) were found to be the most viable mixtures. This is based on practicality of production requirements and high production rate, better quality of fuel produced, fast operating performance in terms of boiling water and cooking rice and potential earnings that may be gained when adopted as an income generating project.

Nenalyn D. Abioda and Carolyn L. Yoro

ABSTRACT


         The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of and attitude towards Reproductive Health (RH) and their relationship to the health seeking behavior of adolescents in all high schools in Iloilo City. This is a descriptive-relational study that used the one-shot survey design. The respondents were the 332 randomly selected fourth year students enrolled in private and public high schools supervised by DepEd and Higher Education Institutions with high school department in Iloilo City for SY 2007-08. Results revealed that the majority of the students belong to the younger age group, are females, enrolled in public high school and residing within Iloilo City; had average level of knowledge about RH, had neutral attitude towards RH, and with good health seeking behavior. A significant relationship existed between: the type of school where the students are enrolled and their knowledge about and attitude towards RH; students’ sex, type of school where they are enrolled, location of residence, attitude and their health seeking behavior; knowledge about and their attitude towards RH. No significant relationship existed between: the students’ age, sex and location of residence and their knowledge about and attitude towards RH; students’ age and knowledge about RH and health seeking behavior; and knowledge about RH and their health seeking behavior when attitude was controlled.

Reynaldo N. Dusaran and Randy A. V. Pabulayan

ABSTRACT


This study was conducted to determine the production practices of the native chicken growers in the top three native chicken municipalities of all provinces in Western Visayas. This is a purely descriptive study that utilized the one-shot survey design. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to identify the study respondents. Face to face interview of the native chicken raisers was conducted. Data analysis was purely descriptive. Results show that there are specific areas in the region where the production of native chicken predominates. The income of the native chicken growers is relatively low since native chicken production is still a backyard family economic undertaking with limited marketable product volume. The growers have an average of 16.2 heads of hens and 4.4 heads of roosters for breeding. Their breeders, mostly home grown, were mostly upgraded native chicken, followed by Darag and Jolo. Native chickens are generally raised in free range. The usual feedstuffs consisting of corn/cracked corn, rice bran, home mixed ration, filled/unfilled palay and rice/milled rice were more or less the same for pullets, cockerels, hens and roosters but amount varies depending on the stage of growth of chickens. These feeds are generally broadcast on the ground. Higher incidence of mortality peaking in June was largely attributed to change in climate, diseases and pests. Generally, the growers did not vaccinate but they provided their native chickens with substances for disease prevention and control. More pullets and cockerels are sold and seasonality was also observed. The native chicken growers have plans for expansion.

Ernesto S. Elefan

ABSTRACT


This study was carried-out to determine the early growth response of Beauty Leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) to five biofertilizers namely Azotobacter, Bio Green, MyKo Vam, Vam Root Inoculant, and Bio N when compared with the Untreated control. Treatments were laid-out in a Randomized Complete Block Design, each replicated three times. Results showed that plant height and root length did not significantly vary among plants fertilized with Azotobacter, Bio Green, MykoVam, and Vam Root but significantly differ from those applied with Bio N and Untreated-control. Plants in all biofertilizers had comparable shoot dry matter weight but were significantly better from the Untreated control. Significantly highest root dry weight was registered by the Azotobacter-fertilized beauty leaf. Final leaf count, shoot base diameter, fresh shoot and root biomass, however, did not differ significantly among all treatments. Based on the results, Azotobacter, Bio Green, MyKoVam, and Vam Root Inoculant are potential biofertilizers for Beauty leaf under a screen house condition.

Alberto A. Java, Ramon A. Alguidano, Jr., Caesar Rico S. Acanto, Ruben M. Armadillo & Vitini Edhard O. Idemne

ABSTRACT


The study aimed to design and construct a locally-made battery charge controller for the Battery Charging Station (BCS) project implemented by Central Philippine University-Affiliated Non-conventional Energy Center (CPU-ANEC). The battery charge controller was designed only to protect the battery from over-charging. The functionality of the charge-controller was tested using a solar panel and a battery. The charging current was controlled by the PWM circuit. During charging, the output of the PWM circuit was both set approximately to ten percent (10%) duty cycle for charging ninety percent (90%) duty cycle for trickle charging. The output waveform and the duty cycle of the PWM circuit were checked using the oscilloscope. Testing of the charge-controller was done for four days of continuous operation to ensure the reliability of the system. Based on the test results, when the duty cycle was ten percent (10%), the green LED lighted-up and the ammeter indicated maximum charging current, while for the ninety percent (90%) duty cycle, a yellow LED light-up indicating minimum current. The red LED light-up when the polarity of the battery was reversed, while the orange LED lightedup only when the battery state of charge was empty. These test results show that the battery charge-controller worked as expected by meeting the required design parameters. The unit is now ready for use.

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